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The History and the Uses of Jet Fuel

Over the past centuries, aviation has become one of the most developed inventions. Aviation had also become one of the most important forms of transport. Without aviation, we would not be able to travel across the globe for a short period. We would still rely on ships to travel, which is time-consuming and not efficient. However, the development of the aviation industries also leads to the elaboration of a new type of fuel. This new kind of fuel was focused mainly on air transport, and it is another vital item to all planes. All aircraft use a type of fuel known as jet fuel or aviation fuel. Without aviation grade fuel, planes would have no source of fuel to power the powerful jet turbine engine that would generate lift and other electrical power for the aircraft.

As plane engines get more complicated, they would require more sophisticated types of fuel to power the engines more efficiently. Common gasoline was not ideal for planes. At the dawn of aviation, most planes have a small, simple engine that powered automobiles. However, simple gasoline was not the best fuel for the powerful engines used by piston-driven airplanes that were developed in the 1930s and 1940s. Simple gasoline was not as efficient, and it did not have a high-octane rating. All types of fuel have a benchmark rating. The benchmark was its level of octane. The higher the amounts of octane allow a powerful piston engine to burn its fuel efficiently. During, the Jet age, the newly invented jet engine does not require a type of fuel that vaporized as easy as before. Instead of using old gasoline, they turn to a mixture of Kerosene and Gasoline. This first type of jet fuel was known as JP-1. Later on, there was a newly developed JP-8, they used this one type of fuel because it had a higher combustion rate and was less carcinogenic. All jet fuels only have a requirement that all types of aviation fuels would not ignite at low temperature, to prevent any fire accidents.

In the commercial plane businesses, they use jet a fuel. Jet a grade fuel is pure kerosene, and it has a flash-point of 49 degrees centigrade. Jet a fuel is a high-quality fuel. If jet a fails the purity and other quality tests for use on jet aircraft, it is sold to ground-based users that have less demanding requirements. Commercial jet fuel as well as military jet fuel often includes anti-freeze to prevent ice buildup inside the fuel tanks. Having ice build up in fuel tanks is one of the last things a pilot could wish for during their flight. In today's market, jet fuel cost around 0.95 cents per gallon. Jet fuel is cheaper than petrol as it is pure kerosene and commercial airlines buy them in bulk, making the price cheaper. Before jet fuel can become usable kerosene has to be extracted from crude oil and purify so it will burn cleanly in jet engines. After extraction is completed, the chemist must figure out the blend of kerosene and gasoline to make the fuel as efficient as possible, and keeps the engine from unnecessary misfires.

In conclusion, the introduction of Jet fuel changed the face of the aviation industries. Without aviation grade, fuel air fares would cost more because they would have to use petrol to run the engines. The uses of jet fuel are also more efficient for planes as they were designed for the job.

How to Turn Your Unhealthy Lifestyle to Healthy

Is an unhealthy lifestyle your responsibility or the health care system's? Well, as an advocate for healthy lifestyles, I believe that each individual must take responsibility for their choices, actions and their overall health. That being said, this simply means that health is a matter of choice. When you are not healthy because of your consumption of fatty foods, high-sugar drinks, smoking, drinking alcoholic beverages (in excess) or not exercising regularly, you are contributing to your unhealthy lifestyle. With the freedom of choice comes the responsibility to choose wisely.

When you choose to turn your unhealthy lifestyle to a healthy one, you reduce your chances of getting sick, you reduce your visits to the doctor and you get a much better chance of preventing future diseases. My equation for turning your unhealthy lifestyle to a healthy one is:

(+ CHOICES) + (+ ACTIONS ) = (+ HEALTH)

To be successful … it must start with YOU.

Then, we must turn our attention to education. Education is the key to changing the thought patterns of the younger North American population from unhealthy lifestyle choices to healthy lifestyle choices and actions. General health is on a downward spiral and in order to stop it from getting worse, we must educate our children today so that they can attain a level of expertise in the care of their own health.

These suggestions may seem simple but did you know that only 3% of Americans maintain a healthy lifestyle? The research is published in the journal Archives of Internal Medicine and the 4 criteria that define a healthy lifestyle are:

  1. Not smoking
  2. Healthy weight
  3. Eating healthy – minimum 5 vegetables and fruit per day
  4. Exercising 30 minutes, 5 times per week

So step up, take responsibility for your choices and those of your children and take appropriate action. Leading a healthy lifestyle should be the necessary expectation of a much larger percentage of our society. There are huge benefits to turning your unhealthy lifestyle to a healthier one such as increased life expectancy, reduced disease risk, reduced medical costs and improved quality of life.

Four Types of Marketing For Small Businesses

As a small business owner, you most likely spend quite a large amount of time trying to discern new ways to gain customers. Marketing can be a fun or stressful business. They key is to understand the types of marketing.

Instead of sending your marketing budget in many different directions, you can choose a specific type and be consistent with it. You will quickly see that your marketing budget pays off much more quickly.

Here, you will find information on four of the main types of marketing. This way, you will be able to choose the marketing actions that will work best for your business. You will then be able to point your marketing budget in the right direction.

1. Blanket marketing is a type that is often used by larger business. Blanket marketing means that you spend money advertising to everyone. Many people choose to do blanket marketing by advertising in magazines or newspapers. You will not really have control of who sees your advertising, but you will have the potential to reach many people.

The downside to blanket marketing is that it can be quite expensive, and you could be wasting money marketing to people who may never become your customers at all. Blanket marketing is best for those who have plenty of funds available and who feel that they will be able to gain many customers from the plan.

2. Targeted marketing is a method in which you choose a certain demographic and only market to them. This could mean that you advertise to everyone in a certain area. Alternatively, you could advertise to everyone in a certain age range.

The great thing about targeted marketing is that you will have a much better chance at getting customers since you will be advertising to the types of people who would most likely become customers. The downside is that it will take a little legwork to determine who your target is and then find the right way to advertise to them.

3. Social media marketing could be called the new kid in town since it is relatively a young concept. With this marketing, you use any one of the many popular social media sites to advertise your company. You can also use a daily blog to garner business.

The downside to this type of marketing is that you will be sending your information out to many people who may not be interested at all. With blogs, you will have to take the time to keep the blog up to date. Otherwise, people may stop reading it.

4. The last type of marketing is not marketing at all. There are not upsides to this. It may seem like a way to save money, but when your business fails, you will actually lose a great deal of money. It is extremely important to find marketing funds within your budget.

A Compaq Guide About Business Setup in Dubai

Dubai is the one of the fastest growing business hub with the state of the art facilities available for local and international business. Dubai is an integral part of business world and is leading with innovation. Dubai is politically stable and has strong economic culture and government of Dubai offer friendly business regulations which attracts the investors from around the world. This article will provide you a Compaq guide regarding business setup in Dubai. Before you start your business in a unbeaten economy like Dubai first you need to under the culture of it. Dubai being an international city is a multi-cultural city, people from all around the world are present in Dubai. After familiarizing yourself with the cultural you must learn about the rules and regulations and kind of the business you can start.

Legal structure of business setup in Dubai is according to UAE Federal Law No. 8 of 1984, and after the amendment in Federal Law No. 13 of 1988 – the Commercial Companies Law, and its by-laws regulate the function of foreign business in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. In wide terms the requirements of these regulations are: The Federal Law requires a total local equity of not less than 51% in any commercial business and describes seven categories of business organizations which can be established in the UAE. This regulation explains the requirements in terms of shareholders, directors, minimum capital requirements and business incorporation processes. This law further lays down the requirements of governing conversion, merger and dissolution of companies and businesses.

In Dubai, you are given plenty of opportunities; you get benefits of best economy based on strong administrative foundations. Authorities of Dubai have divided the city in different economic jurisdictions. You can start different types of businesses in Dubai bases on type of business and location; types are divided in three main categories which are Mainland, Free Zones and Offshore. Another thing to remember is that Dubai welcomes foreign investment but there are rules and regulations that must be followed. In order for you to enter in Dubai, UAE you need to have sponsor, a sponsor will take your responsibility. Importance of a sponsor can be determined by the fact that for any purpose if it is business or you are just visiting you must have a sponsor. When it comes to start a business in Dubai you are require having a sponsor, any kind of business needs a sponsor or service agent. In mainland a local resident or a of United Arab Emirates based company act as a sponsor, for professional service you need service agent as sponsor and for setting up a free zone business you also need a sponsor, in this case free zone acts as your sponsor .

Business setup in Dubai mainland requires you to have a valid license issued by the administrative authority. The name of the authority is Dubai Economic Development (DED); it is a government agency responsible for issuing the business licenses. Renewal of the license, cancellation and up-gradation are also handled by Dubai Economic Development (DED). To ease the investors Dubai Economic Development (DED) operates for different localities, thought scrutiny process of the application is strict but department ensures the quick application processing. In Dubai mainland, Dubai Economic Development (DED) issues four types of licenses, commercial, professional service, Branch office and industrial license.

To setup your business in Dubai mainland under commercial license you are by law mandated to have the help from local UAE resident which is also called local sponsor. Local sponsor is by law hold the 51% shares of your business and you will hold only 49% of shares. However you are given full administrative rights. You can draw contracts with local sponsor and allocate a yearly fee for being a sponsor. Local sponsor sometimes work as silent partners. Local sponsor can be an individual or it can be a UAE based company or group.

However, if you are setting up a business which involve professional services you do not need to have a local sponsor, in that case you only need a service agent. Service agent works on your behalf and helps you deal with the local administrative authorities to start your business. You are allowed to hold 100% of your professional business and service agent will only be paid once for the service he offered.

Free zones are special economic zones in Dubai which are specially designed to attract the foreign investment. Free zone based business are fully owned by the investor and there are plenty of options to choose with. Every free zone in Dubai has a governing authority or free zone authority. For business setup in Dubai you would need deal with the free zone authority. You may be asked by the authority to provide different legal documents before you finally give the go ahead in form of license by that authority.

Free zone offers different attractive options for foreign investors such as you are given 100% of ownership of your business. There are many options free of tax you can avail like no personal income tax, corporate tax exemptions. There are different types of business setup options in Dubai free zones like you can start of your business enterprise as a limited liability company or service provider organizations, there are different licensing options. Business setups in free zones are allowed to perform international trades. When time comes you can easily wind your business. There is less paper work involved when it comes to end your business from a free zone.

Offshore is another type of business setup offered in Dubai and has been very famous. Offshore means a business entity setup outside of the resident country in an offshore jurisdiction. Dubai offshore jurisdiction provides number of benefits to your business in terms of asset protection, tax optimization and business expansion. Businesses setup in Dubai offshore jurisdiction must abide the offshore companies rules and regulations and is not allowed to trade inside the offshore jurisdiction.

To sum up, after making decision with the kind of business you are willing to start in Dubai you need to deal with the concerned authority. The best way is to hire a professional help. You will be able to find number of consulting firms who are willing to help you deal with the paper work and the authorities. You will be asked by regulating authorities to provide different documents and submit paper work.

Here are few steps you may follow, first of all do research and decide the type of business you are willing to embark, choose jurisdiction and follow through. It is recommended to get the help from a professional when it comes to business setup in Dubai. Ready your paper work for the licensing and get a guide on licensing terms and conditions as there are certain activities you are allowed and certain activities you are not allowed to perform. There are license you can choose which allows multiple business activities.

What’s in a Name? The Rise of the Drones

It is definitely a deliberately provocative front cover heading designed to attract attention – 'the rise of the drones'. The Air Force dislikes the term 'drone' mainly because of the media headlines about drone strikes taking out Taliban insurgents that imply that drones are autonomous robots, all-seeing omnipotent machines that find and destroy their targets without human input.

Instead the Air Force prefers the term 'remotely-piloted aircraft', or RPA, which has also been adopted by the Civil Aviation Safety Authority. Certainly in the military context RPA is more accurate terminology than UAV or 'unmanned aerial vehicle'.

It is true that military platforms like the MQ-9 Reaper (on our front cover) are unmanned aircraft in the sense that a pilot is not physically on-board the aircraft. But it is more accurate to say they are remotely-piloted, as the crew of a Reaper, comprising a pilot and sensor operator, flies the aircraft and makes all the decisions on the employment of its weapons and sensors, from the ground.

While autonomous aircraft may be on the horizon, for now at least UAVs are only unmanned in the sense that there is no-one physically in the aircraft. All decision-making is made by a trained human.

(Indeed, as we report in our feature elsewhere this issue, the RAAF "s director of unmanned systems calls RPAs" hyper-manned "because of the personnel requirements to operate a system capable of 24/7 'persistent' operations.)

Where RPA is more of a misnomer is in the world of small drones that can be purchased by the general public. Yes, small drones are 'piloted' in the sense they are controlled by a pilot on the ground via remote control, but in the vast majority of cases drones are flown by 'pilots' with nothing like the qualifications and aviation knowledge and understanding of a 'pilot' in a traditional manned aircraft.

And that's an area of ​​great concern and controversy. Anecdotally many professionals within the aviation industry, from pilots to air traffic controllers, hold grave concerns that it is only a matter of time before a small drone crashes into an airliner on approach or departing an airport, causing a potential disaster.

CASA faces the unenviable task of trying to regulate an area of ​​aviation that is near impossible to properly control. Small drones are cheap and plentiful, all you need to own one is a credit card with a $ 1,000 balance, a few minutes shopping online at eBay or even Officeworks and voila, you're a drone 'pilot'. (We will know we have hit 'peak drone' when the drone you order online is delivered to your door by an Amazon.com delivery drone.)

The US Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) has launched the Aerial Dragnet program, which "seeks innovative technologies to provide persistent, wide-area surveillance of all [unmanned aircraft] operating below 1,000 feet in a large city", Could there be applications here in keeping airports safe from rogue drones?

The rules covering the commercial operation of drones that weigh more than 2kg requires operators to hold an RPA operator's certificate (ReOC) and the pilot to hold a remote pilot license (RePL) – ie to hold aviation knowledge and training.

But of greater concern are the regulations covering recreational use and the new rules introduced from September 29, covering commercial use of drones weighing less than 2kg. In both cases no formal aviation knowledge is required, with only two key requirements governing their use. aerodromes, "states CASA's website summarising the new amendments to CASR Part 101 introduced on September 29, and" you must not fly your RPA higher than 120 metres (400ft) AGL. "

Essentially these same restrictions apply to recreationally flown drones (and remote-controlled aircraft). But how will an RPA pilot with no formal aviation knowledge and training know when they are flying within 5.5km (or 3nm) of a controlled airport? And how well do they know the dangers of doing so if they decide to disregard those rules?

You must keep your RPA at least 5.5km away from controlled 'Peak drone' will be when the drone you order online is delivered to your door by an Amazon, com delivery drone.

Because there's little way of stopping a drone being flown into controlled airspace, whether through ignorance or deliberate wilfulness, and almost no way of warning of a potential drone strike with a commercial airliner carrying hundreds of passengers until it is too late.

Drones are so small that they can not be detected by air traffic control primary radar, and they're not fitted with transponders.

Short of having Air Force Reaper RPAs patrolling the airspace around our major airports ready to shoot down rogue drones that enter controlled airspace with their Hell fire missiles, what is really needed is a better understanding of the dangers of a 2kg drone impacting a "manned" 737 with 150 passengers and crew.

For decades aviation has focused on minimizing the very real danger of bird strike, so aircraft do already have some level of protection against a drone strike. Still, we need to know more about the risk posed by drones, especially with their solid batteries and motors and spinning rotors.

The perception of drones undoubtedly suffers from their foreboding appearance – whether a Reaper or a recreational drone purchased off eBay they look like something out of a sci-fi movie.

But the threat that drones pose to the safely of pilots and the flying public is more than just perception.

Monat Global Review – Can You Get Rich Selling Hair Products?

So lately there's been yet another start-up network marketing company that I've been seeing on social media sites and getting a lot of buzz. The company is called Monat Global. And chances are if you're reading this, you're looking for some information on Monat Global before joining the company. If that's the case, look no further. In this third party Monat Global Review, I'll cover information on the company, the products they sell and more importantly the actual business opportunity they offer. Before proceeding, I want to disclose that I'm not a Monat Global distributor so it really does not matter to me one or another if you join or not. This is important because you can be sure that you're getting an unbiased perspective of the company and the opportunity available for distributors.

Who Is Monat Global?

Monat Global is a Florida-based company that markets high-end haircare products through a Network Marketing business model. The company is extremely young but unlike other start-up companies, the company is actually owned and operated by the Urdaneta family. The Urdaneta family have been involved in Direct Sales for decades and run a huge company called L'Eudine Global. From the looks of it, Monat's products look to be very high quality. The products are paraben-free, Gluten-free, ethanol-free and sulfate-free. Having premium products to market is essential if you're looking to build a business because without satisfied customers re-ordering every month, you have no chance of building a residual income.

How Do You Make Money With Monat Global?

As a distributor, you can earn income 5 different ways. You can earn immediate income retailing products and acquiring VIP Customers. But just like any other Network Marketing company, the true potential lies in building a rep base and customer base. As you grow your group and accumulate customers, you can earn between 7% -12% on your group's volume every month. You can also earn 5% through 5 Generations. Overall the compensation plan looks to be fair and lucrative. There's both upfront and backend income potential which is what you need if you're going to build a business.

Should You Join?

Well … only you can truly answer that question. The management team is experienced and solid. The suite of products are premium and high-quality. And the compensation plan is lucrative. Surely, you'll see success if you join, right? Nothing could be further from the truth. You could have the best opportunity and products in the Industry, but if you do not have a single person to tell about it, you'll make no money. At the end of the day, your success will come down to your ability to sponsor people and get customers. And at some point, your warm market will run out. This is why I suggest you learn how to market online and learn Attraction Marketing. If you can position yourself in front of a highly targeted audience you'll have more leads you can handle. And when you're in a position where you have people chasing you, there; s no telling how prosperous your home business can be.

Tips To Succeed In A Network Marketing Business

I was thinking of making the title "How To Succeed In Business" because perhaps these tips could be applied to any business and not just in network marketing (or MLM). Business is business right? I am going to write and see if perhaps I come up with something unique to network marketing … if I do maybe I will rewrite a little … but in the mean time …

Have Your Own Brand

The first step to succeeding in business is to have your own brand. If you are Joe, the XYZ distributor, you are promoting the XYZ company. Create your own brand … perhaps Joe Smith, Network Marketing Coach, or Joe Smith Company; something to differentiate yourself from all the other distributors in your company.

Add Value

If you are just "You can buy from me too", you are adding no value. You must add some sort of value. For instance, a while back we made great looking baskets and sold them as a product. By reorganizing the product the way we did, we added value to the product.

If you do home delivery, write books, consult with other network marketers; you are adding value. Perhaps extras that you could charge for. The extras are definitely what customers want, otherwise they will just go for the lowest cost product the closest to home.

Have Your Own Product

In network marketing, we typically represent a company and its products but … we could potentially have our own product, such as a recipe book that features our products (for instance). We have our own "Attraction Marketing" or "Black Box Recruiting" site, which is a service that is free, but it counts as a product itself. You could also consider our blog a product. Brainstorm to see what kinds of products you could offer to your customers or to others who might join your business.

Consider Your Image

Image is very important in business. Having your own business name. Positioning yourself as an expert. Being uniquely an expert in something is even better. Having a resume that people want to be associated with. Not necessarily a Word resume, but accomplishments that you can point to. If you do not have accomplishments that would relate, you can build lists of accomplishments over time.

Avoid negative things that could tarnish your image. Treat your customers right. Do not do illegal or unethical things. Be prepared for challenges and consider your options carefully.

Make The Numbers Important

While all of the above are foundations of a good business, the numbers are your measurement of success. Most importantly profit. Profit is your businesses revenue (income) less expenses. Without profit … at some point … no business can survive.

Cash flow is also an important measurement. While sales is great (or commissions), keeping cash in your business is life or death. Often we sell on credit, ie we invoice somebody, and if they take too long to pay that can be extremely stressful. If we run out of money, we are out of business.

We can improve cash flow by selling at a certain margin. Margin is the price sold less cost, divided by price sold … usually provided in percentage form. For instance, an item that costs $ 10 sold at $ 15 has a 50% margin. Many items are bought, or manufactured, at a very low cost and sold at a margin of 100% or more. The higher the margin, the better. Especially when you get to the point of having to cover a slow paying customer.

For instance, you sell to a customer for $ 10,000 monthly at 100% margin. That means your cost is $ 5,000. If they pay in 30 days, once they have paid the first time you have two month's worth of cost covered. So your business survives for two months before you need more cash (for example purposes only because we are not considering other expenses). If your margin is lower, you have more risk of running into cash flow issues; if higher, you have less risk. Your optimal margin is something that is different business to business.

Now if you are only earning commissions, margin does not mean much, you just need to keep your commissions well above your business expenses.

If you are using an accounting package like QuickBooks, you will want to keep an eye on your profit / loss statement and your cash flow statement.

Subtle Bodies And Dark Matter

Long before physicists stumbled onto invisible 'dark matter and energy', metaphysicists had been experimenting and observing them using the sensory systems of their higher energy bodies. They generally called it 'subtle matter and energy' but it went by different names in different places; the most popular being 'qi', 'prana' and 'kundalini'. 'Qi' is a general term for 'energy' in Mandarin; 'Prana' and 'kundalini' are terms that have similar meanings in Hindu metaphysics. This invisible energy has not only been observed by those in the East, it has also been studied in the West. In the West the term 'L' energy is sometimes used. This 'L' energy or 'life energy' has the same general meaning as qi and prana. Science has been unable to measure qi, prana, kundalini or L-energy directly – just as it finds it difficult to measure dark matter or energy directly.

Is dark matter the same as subtle matter?

Obviously both dark matter and subtle matter are invisible to most of us who use the sensory systems of our physical-biomolecular body almost exclusively during this lifetime. However, convince yourself that they are the same by comparing a sample of properties of dark matter with subtle matter, below. (The list is not exhaustive. More and more correlations are cropping-up as we study the subject in greater detail.)

1. There is Mutual Affinity between Dark / Subtle and Ordinary Matter

According to science reporter Robert Britt, studies show that on large cosmic scales dark matter and ordinary matter in galaxies trace out the same shapes and structures. "They become sculpted into nearly identical sheets and filaments, with vast expanses of near-nothingness in between." According to metaphysicist Charles Leadbeater there is an affinity between "astral" matter (a form of subtle matter) and physical matter He says that astral matter is attracted to physical matter and moulds into its shape as the physical-biomolecular body grows. Astral matter follows its every change, 99% of which is compressed within the periphery of the physical-biomolecular body. Conversely, there are also observations which confirm that ordinary matter falls under dark matter's influence. There is, in fact, a mutual affinity between dark / subtle matter and ordinary matter.

2. Dark / Subtle Matter provides the Invisible Scaffolding, Mould or Template for Ordinary Matter

Physicist Chung Pei-Ma, an associate professor of astronomy at UC Berkeley, concludes that "the ghost universe of dark matter is a template for the visible universe". According to Richard Massey, a dark matter researcher at the California Institute of Technology, dark matter condensed first. The gravity of dark matter then pulled ordinary matter into it. "The normal matter flows gravitationally into this sort of dark matter scaffolding," Massey says "and is constructed within that into the galaxy and the stars we see today." According to scientists, dark matter and its gravity shaped bright matter in a manner similar to how the texture of the ground shapes puddles of rainwater. This basically means dark matter acts as a mould for ordinary matter to accumulate and be shaped. Dark matter has been regarded by scientists as something that gives structure to ordinary matter. This means it allows ordinary matter to maintain its form.

Barbara Brennan, former NASA engineer and now world-renowned energy healer, says that the "human energy field" has an organizing effect on matter and builds forms; any changes in the material world are preceded by a change in this field. Metaphysicists, such as Brennan, have been insisting for years that these invisible fields form the templates for the formation of the biomolecular body. Metaphysicist Leonard Ravitz says that the invisible electric fields serve as an electronic matrix to keep the corporeal form in shape. In other words they provide the structure to our physical-biomolecular body to maintain its form.

Brennan observes through her "higher sense perception" that an "energy field matrix" in the shape of a leaf is projected by a plant prior to the growth of a leaf, and then the leaf grows into that already existing form. In other words, the energy field acts as a mould for the growth of the visible leaf. In Raymond Burr's experiments with plant seedlings, he discovered electrical fields which resembled the eventual adult plant. He also discovered that salamanders possessed an energy field shaped like an adult salamander, and that this blueprint even existed in an unfertilized egg. Young salamanders were surrounded by an electrical field of the same size as an adult salamander. He also found that electrical fields surrounding sprouts did not correspond to the form of the seeds but to the form of the grown plant. According to Leadbeater, the (invisible) "etheric double" is actually built in advance of the human fetus. "Clairvoyants sometimes see this doll-like little figure hovering about, and afterwards within the body of the mother", he says.

3. Dark / Subtle Matter generates Superficial Forms

Physicists Chung-Pei Ma and Edmund Bertschinger of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) say, based on computer models of how dark matter would move under the force of gravity, that dark matter should form smaller clumps that look superficially like the galaxies and globular clusters we see in our luminous (ordinarily visible) universe.

Metaphysicists, such as Leadbeater, say that the etheric and astral bodies look superficially like the biomolecular body but they operate differently, being based on electromagnetic rather than largely biochemical processes as in the biomolecular body.

4. Dark / Subtle Matter Astronomical Objects Outnumber Ordinary Objects

Ma and Bertschinger of MIT say that computer simulations of the evolution of dark matter predict far more clumps of dark matter than ordinarily visible luminous matter in a specified region. According to Ma, "Our galaxy, the Milky Way, has about a dozen satellites, but in simulations we see thousands of satellites of dark matter."

Mystic Paramahansa Yogananda said in 1946 that "just as many physical suns and stars roam in space, so there are also countless astral suns and moons." In 1957 metaphysicist Norman Pearson noted that so far (in Science) we have only considered physical planets; but there are also planets composed of 'super-physical' matter. In fact, he says, "The super-physical planets form the greater part of the planetary population of the Solar System."

5. Dark / Subtle Matter Particles Can Pass through You

Compare the description of dark matter particles, called WIMPs, by a physicist with the globules of L-energy, described by metaphysicist Paul Pearsall:

"If there are as many WIMPs [ ie dark matter particles] as would be required to explain the motions of galaxies, large numbers are whizzing through the room you are sitting in, and through your own body, without you noticing" – John Gribbin, Physicist.

"It [ie globules of subtle L -energy] passes unchanged through any known substance and nothing shields or deflects it" – Paul Pearsall, Metaphysicist

"We do not know what the remaining 90% of matter is, but this 'dark matter' differs from ordinary matter in being able to pass right through both ordinary matter and other dark matter, just like ghosts are supposed to pass through stone walls . " – Theoretical Astrophysics Group, University of Oxford

Ron Cowen says, "Evidence indicates that when speeding fragments of dark matter meet, they do not collide as other matter do but pass right through each other, ghostlike." Observations by the Chandra X-Ray Observatory suggest that if dark matter particles do collide, they do so relatively weakly. In other words, they will not be appreciably affected on collision.

Leadbeater noted (almost a century ago) that subtle astral bodies can and do constantly interpenetrate one another fully, without in the least injuring one another. "People on the astral plane," according to him, "can and do pass through one another constantly, and through fixed astral objects." When passing through another subtle astral body for a short time, the two astral bodies are not appreciably affected. However, if the interpenetration lasts for some time, Leadbeater says that they do affect one another "as far as the rates of vibration [ie frequencies] are concerned."

This is not surprising, as (according to plasma metaphysics) subtle bodies are electromagnetic bodies. Hence, when two subtle bodies pass through each other slowly there would be electromagnetic effects – such as changes in frequencies and distribution of charges over the subtle body. David Spergel of Princeton University, commenting on the findings by the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, is of the view that "the findings do not rule out interactions, other than gravitational effects, among dark matter particles." Hence bodies composed of dark matter particles can interact with one another electromagnetically. The ability of subtle bodies to pass through other subtle bodies and objects betrays the fact that they are composed of low-density dark matter.

6. Dark / Subtle Matter is of Low Density

According to scientists, the average dark matter density in the Solar System is much lower (a trillion trillion times lower) than that of rocks, water and other substances typically found on Earth.

Out-of-body researcher, Robert Monroe, observes that the 'Second Body' can penetrate walls and concludes that, "Anything that can interpenetrate a wall must have very little density." Metaphysicist Leadbeater observed (around 1910) that astral matter is only relatively solid. Almost a century ago he said, "The particles in the densest astral matter are further apart, relative to their size, than even gaseous particles. Hence, it is easier for two of the densest astral bodies to pass through each other than it would be for the lightest gas to diffuse itself in the air. " In other words, astral bodies are composed of "collisionless" dark matter.

7. Dark / Subtle Matter rapidly increases in Density towards the Center

A study using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey provides the most direct evidence yet that galaxies reside at the centre of giant, dark matter concentrations that may be 50 times larger than the visible galaxy itself! The 'lambda cold dark matter' model is a popular scientific model that predicts that dark matter rapidly increases in density towards the centre of a galaxy. Astrophysicists modeling the motion of dark matter say that each clump had a density that peaked in the centre and fell-off toward the edges in the exact same way, independent of its size. Observations with the Chandra X-ray Observatory support the cold dark matter model. To test the model, researchers used Chandra's sharp optics to measure the temperature and intensity of the hot, X-ray-emitting gas in a galaxy cluster some 4 billion light-years from Earth. The data obtained by John S Arabadjis and Mark W Bautz of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, along with Gordon P Garmire of Pennsylvania State University in State College, found that the density is greater the closer it is to the centre of the cluster.

Leadbeater reported in 1910 that the densest aggregation of subtle astral matter is within the periphery of the physical body of a man. Similarly, he said, in the case of the Earth, the greater part of its astral matter is gathered together within the limits of its ordinarily visible physical sphere. The density profile of subtle astral matter is consistent with the density profile of dark matter observed by the Chandra X-Ray Observatory.

8. Dark / Subtle Matter is "Weakly Interacting"

Physicists say dark matter 'interacts weakly' with ordinarily visible matter. They could well have said that there are 'subtle interactions' between dark and ordinarily visible matter. The term 'subtle' used by metaphysicists is not much different in meaning from 'weakly interacting' used by physicists to describe the nature of interactions between ordinary and dark matter.

9. Dark / Subtle Matter is Composed of High Energy Particles

Dark matter particles include supersymmetric objects and particles. According to scientists, these are higher mass-higher energy particles that have not been detected by our current low energy particle accelerators because of their high energies.

Subtle matter (in traditional metaphysical theories) is considered to be made up of highly energetic particles which generally becomes visible (as objects) after some training in meditation or similar exercises. In Hindu metaphysics, we find references to not only the "anu" (ie standard physical particles) but "param-anu" (which are super-physical particles). Valerie Hunt, Professor Emeritus at UCLA and internationally recognized authority in the area of ​​energy field medicine, says that "even ancient Hindu literature asserts that the energy body possesses a higher vibration [or frequency] than normal matter-energy." Modern 'seers' were unanimous in their opinion that subtle bodies consist of "as yet undiscovered higher frequency matter and energy" and have mass – long before any widespread awareness of dark matter or supersymmetry theories.

10. Dark / Subtle Matter forms Webs

According to Britt, scientific studies show that both ordinary and dark matter work in concert to build a web of filaments in space, with dense junctions where galaxies cluster together. The resulting structures, he says, look something like spider webs.

In 1904 metaphysicist Annie Besant reported that, "During human antenatal life a single thread weaves a network, a shimmering web of inconceivable fineness and delicate beauty, with minute meshes. Within the meshes of this web the coarser particles of the bodies are built together. " The Chinese acupuncture map of meridians in the physical-etheric body also resembles a web of energy. According to Brennan, the physical-etheric body is "like a sparkling web of light beams". To a clairvoyant, "the etheric body consists of a definite structure of lines of force and sparks of bluish white light move along these lines" she says. This web has been discussed in more detail in the author's article Acupuncture Meridians and the Cosmic Spider Web.

11. Dark / Subtle Matter is Subject to Gravity

"Thanks to a new analysis by physicists at Caltech and the University of Toronto, we can expect that lumps of dark matter gravitationally attract each other in just the same way that lumps of normal matter (like you and the Earth, for instance) attract each other. " – Science Daily, October 2006

"Astral matter [ie dark matter] gravitates towards the center of the Earth, just as physical matter does." – Charles Leadbeater, Metaphysicist, 1910

According to Brennan 'aura' appears to have weight. Monroe believes that the 'Second Body' has weight and is subject to the gravitational force. (Weight is, of course, an effect of the gravitational force.) It appears that what was discovered by Science in 2006 was observed by Leadbeater almost a century ago and also by many other experimental metaphysicists.

Conclusion

There is only one inescapable conclusion: The dark matter and energy of physicists is the subtle matter and energy of metaphysicists. Sooner or later qi, prana and kundalini must be accounted for by Science under dark matter and energy – after all they are, by definition, dark matter and energy. It is also important to note that the metaphysical evidence strongly suggests that certain people can see this dark matter (using the sensory-cognitive systems of their higher energy subtle bodies) which is ordinarily invisible to most of us.

© Copyright 2007 Jay Alfred

Living High, Training Low

Athletes in endurance events practice a training technique called "living high, training low". Many years ago, scientists noticed that people who live in the mountains, where the air contains lower levels of oxygen, have higher than normal blood oxygen levels. A limiting factor in events that require endurance is the time it takes to move oxygen from the lungs into the muscles. Since more than 98 percent of the oxygen in the blood is bound to red blood cells, people with high numbers of red blood cells should have higher levels of oxygen and therefore have more oxygen available for their muscles, giving them greater endurance. It shows that living and training at high altitude would improve performance even more, so theoretically, all long distance runners, cross country skiers, bicycle racers and other athletes in endurance sports would benefit from living and training at high altitudes.

However, you can not train as intensely in the mountains where oxygen is sparse. Lack of oxygen during hard exercise slows you down. One group of researchers decided to see if living at high altitudes would increase red blood cell concentration, and training at low altitude Would allow the athletes to take harder workouts. Eleven trained middle-distance runners were tested before an 18-day training session in which they slept in special low-oxygen pressure chambers and trained at sea level with oxygen-rich air ( Journal of Applied Physiology , January 2006). The tests were returned 15 days after the training. The athletes who lived high and trained low had higher maximal oxygen uptakes, higher maximal aerobic power and lower resting heart rates than the control group. The blood of these athletes could carry more oxygen, and the oxygen concentration in their bloodstream would return to normal earlier after intestinal competitions so their performance would improve.

What’s in a Name? The Rise of the Drones

It is definitely a deliberately provocative front cover heading designed to attract attention – 'the rise of the drones'. The Air Force dislikes the term 'drone' mainly because of the media headlines about drone strikes taking out Taliban insurgents that imply that drones are autonomous robots, all-seeing omnipotent machines that find and destroy their targets without human input.

Instead the Air Force prefers the term 'remotely-piloted aircraft', or RPA, which has also been adopted by the Civil Aviation Safety Authority. Certainly in the military context RPA is more accurate terminology than UAV or 'unmanned aerial vehicle'.

It is true that military platforms like the MQ-9 Reaper (on our front cover) are unmanned aircraft in the sense that a pilot is not physically on-board the aircraft. But it is more accurate to say they are remotely-piloted, as the crew of a Reaper, comprising a pilot and sensor operator, flies the aircraft and makes all the decisions on the employment of its weapons and sensors, from the ground.

While autonomous aircraft may be on the horizon, for now at least UAVs are only unmanned in the sense that there is no-one physically in the aircraft. All decision-making is made by a trained human.

(Indeed, as we report in our feature elsewhere this issue, the RAAF "s director of unmanned systems calls RPAs" hyper-manned "because of the personnel requirements to operate a system capable of 24/7 'persistent' operations.)

Where RPA is more of a misnomer is in the world of small drones that can be purchased by the general public. Yes, small drones are 'piloted' in the sense they are controlled by a pilot on the ground via remote control, but in the vast majority of cases drones are flown by 'pilots' with nothing like the qualifications and aviation knowledge and understanding of a 'pilot' in a traditional manned aircraft.

And that's an area of ​​great concern and controversy. Anecdotally many professionals within the aviation industry, from pilots to air traffic controllers, hold grave concerns that it is only a matter of time before a small drone crashes into an airliner on approach or departing an airport, causing a potential disaster.

CASA faces the unenviable task of trying to regulate an area of ​​aviation that is near impossible to properly control. Small drones are cheap and plentiful, all you need to own one is a credit card with a $ 1,000 balance, a few minutes shopping online at eBay or even Officeworks and voila, you're a drone 'pilot'. (We will know we have hit 'peak drone' when the drone you order online is delivered to your door by an Amazon.com delivery drone.)

The US Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) has launched the Aerial Dragnet program, which "seeks innovative technologies to provide persistent, wide-area surveillance of all [unmanned aircraft] operating below 1,000 feet in a large city", Could there be applications here in keeping airports safe from rogue drones?

The rules covering the commercial operation of drones that weigh more than 2kg requires operators to hold an RPA operator's certificate (ReOC) and the pilot to hold a remote pilot license (RePL) – ie to hold aviation knowledge and training.

But of greater concern are the regulations covering recreational use and the new rules introduced from September 29, covering commercial use of drones weighing less than 2kg. In both cases no formal aviation knowledge is required, with only two key requirements governing their use. aerodromes, "states CASA's website summarising the new amendments to CASR Part 101 introduced on September 29, and" you must not fly your RPA higher than 120 metres (400ft) AGL. "

Essentially these same restrictions apply to recreationally flown drones (and remote-controlled aircraft). But how will an RPA pilot with no formal aviation knowledge and training know when they are flying within 5.5km (or 3nm) of a controlled airport? And how well do they know the dangers of doing so if they decide to disregard those rules?

You must keep your RPA at least 5.5km away from controlled 'Peak drone' will be when the drone you order online is delivered to your door by an Amazon, com delivery drone.

Because there's little way of stopping a drone being flown into controlled airspace, whether through ignorance or deliberate wilfulness, and almost no way of warning of a potential drone strike with a commercial airliner carrying hundreds of passengers until it is too late.

Drones are so small that they can not be detected by air traffic control primary radar, and they're not fitted with transponders.

Short of having Air Force Reaper RPAs patrolling the airspace around our major airports ready to shoot down rogue drones that enter controlled airspace with their Hell fire missiles, what is really needed is a better understanding of the dangers of a 2kg drone impacting a "manned" 737 with 150 passengers and crew.

For decades aviation has focused on minimizing the very real danger of bird strike, so aircraft do already have some level of protection against a drone strike. Still, we need to know more about the risk posed by drones, especially with their solid batteries and motors and spinning rotors.

The perception of drones undoubtedly suffers from their foreboding appearance – whether a Reaper or a recreational drone purchased off eBay they look like something out of a sci-fi movie.

But the threat that drones pose to the safely of pilots and the flying public is more than just perception.