Subtle Bodies And Dark Matter

Long before physicists stumbled onto invisible 'dark matter and energy', metaphysicists had been experimenting and observing them using the sensory systems of their higher energy bodies. They generally called it 'subtle matter and energy' but it went by different names in different places; the most popular being 'qi', 'prana' and 'kundalini'. 'Qi' is a general term for 'energy' in Mandarin; 'Prana' and 'kundalini' are terms that have similar meanings in Hindu metaphysics. This invisible energy has not only been observed by those in the East, it has also been studied in the West. In the West the term 'L' energy is sometimes used. This 'L' energy or 'life energy' has the same general meaning as qi and prana. Science has been unable to measure qi, prana, kundalini or L-energy directly – just as it finds it difficult to measure dark matter or energy directly.

Is dark matter the same as subtle matter?

Obviously both dark matter and subtle matter are invisible to most of us who use the sensory systems of our physical-biomolecular body almost exclusively during this lifetime. However, convince yourself that they are the same by comparing a sample of properties of dark matter with subtle matter, below. (The list is not exhaustive. More and more correlations are cropping-up as we study the subject in greater detail.)

1. There is Mutual Affinity between Dark / Subtle and Ordinary Matter

According to science reporter Robert Britt, studies show that on large cosmic scales dark matter and ordinary matter in galaxies trace out the same shapes and structures. "They become sculpted into nearly identical sheets and filaments, with vast expanses of near-nothingness in between." According to metaphysicist Charles Leadbeater there is an affinity between "astral" matter (a form of subtle matter) and physical matter He says that astral matter is attracted to physical matter and moulds into its shape as the physical-biomolecular body grows. Astral matter follows its every change, 99% of which is compressed within the periphery of the physical-biomolecular body. Conversely, there are also observations which confirm that ordinary matter falls under dark matter's influence. There is, in fact, a mutual affinity between dark / subtle matter and ordinary matter.

2. Dark / Subtle Matter provides the Invisible Scaffolding, Mould or Template for Ordinary Matter

Physicist Chung Pei-Ma, an associate professor of astronomy at UC Berkeley, concludes that "the ghost universe of dark matter is a template for the visible universe". According to Richard Massey, a dark matter researcher at the California Institute of Technology, dark matter condensed first. The gravity of dark matter then pulled ordinary matter into it. "The normal matter flows gravitationally into this sort of dark matter scaffolding," Massey says "and is constructed within that into the galaxy and the stars we see today." According to scientists, dark matter and its gravity shaped bright matter in a manner similar to how the texture of the ground shapes puddles of rainwater. This basically means dark matter acts as a mould for ordinary matter to accumulate and be shaped. Dark matter has been regarded by scientists as something that gives structure to ordinary matter. This means it allows ordinary matter to maintain its form.

Barbara Brennan, former NASA engineer and now world-renowned energy healer, says that the "human energy field" has an organizing effect on matter and builds forms; any changes in the material world are preceded by a change in this field. Metaphysicists, such as Brennan, have been insisting for years that these invisible fields form the templates for the formation of the biomolecular body. Metaphysicist Leonard Ravitz says that the invisible electric fields serve as an electronic matrix to keep the corporeal form in shape. In other words they provide the structure to our physical-biomolecular body to maintain its form.

Brennan observes through her "higher sense perception" that an "energy field matrix" in the shape of a leaf is projected by a plant prior to the growth of a leaf, and then the leaf grows into that already existing form. In other words, the energy field acts as a mould for the growth of the visible leaf. In Raymond Burr's experiments with plant seedlings, he discovered electrical fields which resembled the eventual adult plant. He also discovered that salamanders possessed an energy field shaped like an adult salamander, and that this blueprint even existed in an unfertilized egg. Young salamanders were surrounded by an electrical field of the same size as an adult salamander. He also found that electrical fields surrounding sprouts did not correspond to the form of the seeds but to the form of the grown plant. According to Leadbeater, the (invisible) "etheric double" is actually built in advance of the human fetus. "Clairvoyants sometimes see this doll-like little figure hovering about, and afterwards within the body of the mother", he says.

3. Dark / Subtle Matter generates Superficial Forms

Physicists Chung-Pei Ma and Edmund Bertschinger of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) say, based on computer models of how dark matter would move under the force of gravity, that dark matter should form smaller clumps that look superficially like the galaxies and globular clusters we see in our luminous (ordinarily visible) universe.

Metaphysicists, such as Leadbeater, say that the etheric and astral bodies look superficially like the biomolecular body but they operate differently, being based on electromagnetic rather than largely biochemical processes as in the biomolecular body.

4. Dark / Subtle Matter Astronomical Objects Outnumber Ordinary Objects

Ma and Bertschinger of MIT say that computer simulations of the evolution of dark matter predict far more clumps of dark matter than ordinarily visible luminous matter in a specified region. According to Ma, "Our galaxy, the Milky Way, has about a dozen satellites, but in simulations we see thousands of satellites of dark matter."

Mystic Paramahansa Yogananda said in 1946 that "just as many physical suns and stars roam in space, so there are also countless astral suns and moons." In 1957 metaphysicist Norman Pearson noted that so far (in Science) we have only considered physical planets; but there are also planets composed of 'super-physical' matter. In fact, he says, "The super-physical planets form the greater part of the planetary population of the Solar System."

5. Dark / Subtle Matter Particles Can Pass through You

Compare the description of dark matter particles, called WIMPs, by a physicist with the globules of L-energy, described by metaphysicist Paul Pearsall:

"If there are as many WIMPs [ ie dark matter particles] as would be required to explain the motions of galaxies, large numbers are whizzing through the room you are sitting in, and through your own body, without you noticing" – John Gribbin, Physicist.

"It [ie globules of subtle L -energy] passes unchanged through any known substance and nothing shields or deflects it" – Paul Pearsall, Metaphysicist

"We do not know what the remaining 90% of matter is, but this 'dark matter' differs from ordinary matter in being able to pass right through both ordinary matter and other dark matter, just like ghosts are supposed to pass through stone walls . " – Theoretical Astrophysics Group, University of Oxford

Ron Cowen says, "Evidence indicates that when speeding fragments of dark matter meet, they do not collide as other matter do but pass right through each other, ghostlike." Observations by the Chandra X-Ray Observatory suggest that if dark matter particles do collide, they do so relatively weakly. In other words, they will not be appreciably affected on collision.

Leadbeater noted (almost a century ago) that subtle astral bodies can and do constantly interpenetrate one another fully, without in the least injuring one another. "People on the astral plane," according to him, "can and do pass through one another constantly, and through fixed astral objects." When passing through another subtle astral body for a short time, the two astral bodies are not appreciably affected. However, if the interpenetration lasts for some time, Leadbeater says that they do affect one another "as far as the rates of vibration [ie frequencies] are concerned."

This is not surprising, as (according to plasma metaphysics) subtle bodies are electromagnetic bodies. Hence, when two subtle bodies pass through each other slowly there would be electromagnetic effects – such as changes in frequencies and distribution of charges over the subtle body. David Spergel of Princeton University, commenting on the findings by the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, is of the view that "the findings do not rule out interactions, other than gravitational effects, among dark matter particles." Hence bodies composed of dark matter particles can interact with one another electromagnetically. The ability of subtle bodies to pass through other subtle bodies and objects betrays the fact that they are composed of low-density dark matter.

6. Dark / Subtle Matter is of Low Density

According to scientists, the average dark matter density in the Solar System is much lower (a trillion trillion times lower) than that of rocks, water and other substances typically found on Earth.

Out-of-body researcher, Robert Monroe, observes that the 'Second Body' can penetrate walls and concludes that, "Anything that can interpenetrate a wall must have very little density." Metaphysicist Leadbeater observed (around 1910) that astral matter is only relatively solid. Almost a century ago he said, "The particles in the densest astral matter are further apart, relative to their size, than even gaseous particles. Hence, it is easier for two of the densest astral bodies to pass through each other than it would be for the lightest gas to diffuse itself in the air. " In other words, astral bodies are composed of "collisionless" dark matter.

7. Dark / Subtle Matter rapidly increases in Density towards the Center

A study using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey provides the most direct evidence yet that galaxies reside at the centre of giant, dark matter concentrations that may be 50 times larger than the visible galaxy itself! The 'lambda cold dark matter' model is a popular scientific model that predicts that dark matter rapidly increases in density towards the centre of a galaxy. Astrophysicists modeling the motion of dark matter say that each clump had a density that peaked in the centre and fell-off toward the edges in the exact same way, independent of its size. Observations with the Chandra X-ray Observatory support the cold dark matter model. To test the model, researchers used Chandra's sharp optics to measure the temperature and intensity of the hot, X-ray-emitting gas in a galaxy cluster some 4 billion light-years from Earth. The data obtained by John S Arabadjis and Mark W Bautz of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, along with Gordon P Garmire of Pennsylvania State University in State College, found that the density is greater the closer it is to the centre of the cluster.

Leadbeater reported in 1910 that the densest aggregation of subtle astral matter is within the periphery of the physical body of a man. Similarly, he said, in the case of the Earth, the greater part of its astral matter is gathered together within the limits of its ordinarily visible physical sphere. The density profile of subtle astral matter is consistent with the density profile of dark matter observed by the Chandra X-Ray Observatory.

8. Dark / Subtle Matter is "Weakly Interacting"

Physicists say dark matter 'interacts weakly' with ordinarily visible matter. They could well have said that there are 'subtle interactions' between dark and ordinarily visible matter. The term 'subtle' used by metaphysicists is not much different in meaning from 'weakly interacting' used by physicists to describe the nature of interactions between ordinary and dark matter.

9. Dark / Subtle Matter is Composed of High Energy Particles

Dark matter particles include supersymmetric objects and particles. According to scientists, these are higher mass-higher energy particles that have not been detected by our current low energy particle accelerators because of their high energies.

Subtle matter (in traditional metaphysical theories) is considered to be made up of highly energetic particles which generally becomes visible (as objects) after some training in meditation or similar exercises. In Hindu metaphysics, we find references to not only the "anu" (ie standard physical particles) but "param-anu" (which are super-physical particles). Valerie Hunt, Professor Emeritus at UCLA and internationally recognized authority in the area of ​​energy field medicine, says that "even ancient Hindu literature asserts that the energy body possesses a higher vibration [or frequency] than normal matter-energy." Modern 'seers' were unanimous in their opinion that subtle bodies consist of "as yet undiscovered higher frequency matter and energy" and have mass – long before any widespread awareness of dark matter or supersymmetry theories.

10. Dark / Subtle Matter forms Webs

According to Britt, scientific studies show that both ordinary and dark matter work in concert to build a web of filaments in space, with dense junctions where galaxies cluster together. The resulting structures, he says, look something like spider webs.

In 1904 metaphysicist Annie Besant reported that, "During human antenatal life a single thread weaves a network, a shimmering web of inconceivable fineness and delicate beauty, with minute meshes. Within the meshes of this web the coarser particles of the bodies are built together. " The Chinese acupuncture map of meridians in the physical-etheric body also resembles a web of energy. According to Brennan, the physical-etheric body is "like a sparkling web of light beams". To a clairvoyant, "the etheric body consists of a definite structure of lines of force and sparks of bluish white light move along these lines" she says. This web has been discussed in more detail in the author's article Acupuncture Meridians and the Cosmic Spider Web.

11. Dark / Subtle Matter is Subject to Gravity

"Thanks to a new analysis by physicists at Caltech and the University of Toronto, we can expect that lumps of dark matter gravitationally attract each other in just the same way that lumps of normal matter (like you and the Earth, for instance) attract each other. " – Science Daily, October 2006

"Astral matter [ie dark matter] gravitates towards the center of the Earth, just as physical matter does." – Charles Leadbeater, Metaphysicist, 1910

According to Brennan 'aura' appears to have weight. Monroe believes that the 'Second Body' has weight and is subject to the gravitational force. (Weight is, of course, an effect of the gravitational force.) It appears that what was discovered by Science in 2006 was observed by Leadbeater almost a century ago and also by many other experimental metaphysicists.


There is only one inescapable conclusion: The dark matter and energy of physicists is the subtle matter and energy of metaphysicists. Sooner or later qi, prana and kundalini must be accounted for by Science under dark matter and energy – after all they are, by definition, dark matter and energy. It is also important to note that the metaphysical evidence strongly suggests that certain people can see this dark matter (using the sensory-cognitive systems of their higher energy subtle bodies) which is ordinarily invisible to most of us.

© Copyright 2007 Jay Alfred

Living High, Training Low

Athletes in endurance events practice a training technique called "living high, training low". Many years ago, scientists noticed that people who live in the mountains, where the air contains lower levels of oxygen, have higher than normal blood oxygen levels. A limiting factor in events that require endurance is the time it takes to move oxygen from the lungs into the muscles. Since more than 98 percent of the oxygen in the blood is bound to red blood cells, people with high numbers of red blood cells should have higher levels of oxygen and therefore have more oxygen available for their muscles, giving them greater endurance. It shows that living and training at high altitude would improve performance even more, so theoretically, all long distance runners, cross country skiers, bicycle racers and other athletes in endurance sports would benefit from living and training at high altitudes.

However, you can not train as intensely in the mountains where oxygen is sparse. Lack of oxygen during hard exercise slows you down. One group of researchers decided to see if living at high altitudes would increase red blood cell concentration, and training at low altitude Would allow the athletes to take harder workouts. Eleven trained middle-distance runners were tested before an 18-day training session in which they slept in special low-oxygen pressure chambers and trained at sea level with oxygen-rich air ( Journal of Applied Physiology , January 2006). The tests were returned 15 days after the training. The athletes who lived high and trained low had higher maximal oxygen uptakes, higher maximal aerobic power and lower resting heart rates than the control group. The blood of these athletes could carry more oxygen, and the oxygen concentration in their bloodstream would return to normal earlier after intestinal competitions so their performance would improve.

What’s in a Name? The Rise of the Drones

It is definitely a deliberately provocative front cover heading designed to attract attention – 'the rise of the drones'. The Air Force dislikes the term 'drone' mainly because of the media headlines about drone strikes taking out Taliban insurgents that imply that drones are autonomous robots, all-seeing omnipotent machines that find and destroy their targets without human input.

Instead the Air Force prefers the term 'remotely-piloted aircraft', or RPA, which has also been adopted by the Civil Aviation Safety Authority. Certainly in the military context RPA is more accurate terminology than UAV or 'unmanned aerial vehicle'.

It is true that military platforms like the MQ-9 Reaper (on our front cover) are unmanned aircraft in the sense that a pilot is not physically on-board the aircraft. But it is more accurate to say they are remotely-piloted, as the crew of a Reaper, comprising a pilot and sensor operator, flies the aircraft and makes all the decisions on the employment of its weapons and sensors, from the ground.

While autonomous aircraft may be on the horizon, for now at least UAVs are only unmanned in the sense that there is no-one physically in the aircraft. All decision-making is made by a trained human.

(Indeed, as we report in our feature elsewhere this issue, the RAAF "s director of unmanned systems calls RPAs" hyper-manned "because of the personnel requirements to operate a system capable of 24/7 'persistent' operations.)

Where RPA is more of a misnomer is in the world of small drones that can be purchased by the general public. Yes, small drones are 'piloted' in the sense they are controlled by a pilot on the ground via remote control, but in the vast majority of cases drones are flown by 'pilots' with nothing like the qualifications and aviation knowledge and understanding of a 'pilot' in a traditional manned aircraft.

And that's an area of ​​great concern and controversy. Anecdotally many professionals within the aviation industry, from pilots to air traffic controllers, hold grave concerns that it is only a matter of time before a small drone crashes into an airliner on approach or departing an airport, causing a potential disaster.

CASA faces the unenviable task of trying to regulate an area of ​​aviation that is near impossible to properly control. Small drones are cheap and plentiful, all you need to own one is a credit card with a $ 1,000 balance, a few minutes shopping online at eBay or even Officeworks and voila, you're a drone 'pilot'. (We will know we have hit 'peak drone' when the drone you order online is delivered to your door by an delivery drone.)

The US Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) has launched the Aerial Dragnet program, which "seeks innovative technologies to provide persistent, wide-area surveillance of all [unmanned aircraft] operating below 1,000 feet in a large city", Could there be applications here in keeping airports safe from rogue drones?

The rules covering the commercial operation of drones that weigh more than 2kg requires operators to hold an RPA operator's certificate (ReOC) and the pilot to hold a remote pilot license (RePL) – ie to hold aviation knowledge and training.

But of greater concern are the regulations covering recreational use and the new rules introduced from September 29, covering commercial use of drones weighing less than 2kg. In both cases no formal aviation knowledge is required, with only two key requirements governing their use. aerodromes, "states CASA's website summarising the new amendments to CASR Part 101 introduced on September 29, and" you must not fly your RPA higher than 120 metres (400ft) AGL. "

Essentially these same restrictions apply to recreationally flown drones (and remote-controlled aircraft). But how will an RPA pilot with no formal aviation knowledge and training know when they are flying within 5.5km (or 3nm) of a controlled airport? And how well do they know the dangers of doing so if they decide to disregard those rules?

You must keep your RPA at least 5.5km away from controlled 'Peak drone' will be when the drone you order online is delivered to your door by an Amazon, com delivery drone.

Because there's little way of stopping a drone being flown into controlled airspace, whether through ignorance or deliberate wilfulness, and almost no way of warning of a potential drone strike with a commercial airliner carrying hundreds of passengers until it is too late.

Drones are so small that they can not be detected by air traffic control primary radar, and they're not fitted with transponders.

Short of having Air Force Reaper RPAs patrolling the airspace around our major airports ready to shoot down rogue drones that enter controlled airspace with their Hell fire missiles, what is really needed is a better understanding of the dangers of a 2kg drone impacting a "manned" 737 with 150 passengers and crew.

For decades aviation has focused on minimizing the very real danger of bird strike, so aircraft do already have some level of protection against a drone strike. Still, we need to know more about the risk posed by drones, especially with their solid batteries and motors and spinning rotors.

The perception of drones undoubtedly suffers from their foreboding appearance – whether a Reaper or a recreational drone purchased off eBay they look like something out of a sci-fi movie.

But the threat that drones pose to the safely of pilots and the flying public is more than just perception.

The Importance Of The Strain Gauge

Products such as the strain gauge that measure fatigues in metals play vital roles in productivity and safety. There are many categories of measuring instruments and many more if the products within each category are counted. For example, within the category of strain gauges there are seven sub-categories including accessories such as cleaning agents and solder terminals. Such products are of vital significance in a world which is increasingly dependent on high-tech equipment.

As the world revolves a myriad of machines work smoothly to keep things going. Massive planes take to the skies in tremendous bursts of power, and at a different level coal powered and nuclear turbines keep the electricity flowing into domestic kitchens. The stresses imposed by heat and movement upon the material components of all the machines that power our lives do not in themselves cause break downs but are the causes that will inevitably result in effects. Engineers measure stress in mechanical components using a variety of means.

A strain gauge is a resistance-based sensor used by mechanical engineers. Strain does not officially have a unit of measurement, but for reference purposes, a special unit of measurement is used. Because the changes in length are often very small, the unit of change employed is expressed as 10 to the power of six, to provide meaningful readings.

There are various types and configurations of sensors. The metal foil gauge consists of a length of thin metal wire wound around a grid called a matrix. This is stuck to a metal backing and then bonded to the object where measurement is required. The gauge is aligned with the line in which stress will occur. As the wire lengthens or compresses, so measurements are taken.

Optical sensors are made of glass, of varying thicknesses. Fibres with a core of 5 micrometers are surrounded by a layer of pure glass with a diameter of 125 micrometers. Different reflection points create optical effects. As these gauges are insensitive to electromagnetic fields they are useful in explosive atmospheres.

Configurations of gauges can be designed to measure various strains that might apply to objects of different sizes and components. For example the bi-axial configuration can measure along different planes, as in a hole or cutting instrument. Here two different appliance are aligned at right angles to a common point in order to measure along different axes.

In addition to measuring mechanically, instruments can be designed to measure thermally. The forces applied to continuously welded railway lines occur vertically, longitudinally and laterally. Configurations of different instruments can provide vitally important data for maintenance crews, and help to ensure the safety of long distance and high speed trains.

It is clear that the strain gauge play an important role across the gamut of industrial activities. In mining, agriculture, architecture, construction and road building there are obvious applications. Less obvious, but equally important are the uses in the media, medicine and legal services. Engineers engaged across all these fields do well to choose the products of reputable manufacturers who can be relied upon to produce accurate measuring instruments.

Architectural Ironmongery Work

The art of architectural ironmongery is timeless; as it has been utilized since hundreds of years ago. The simplest ironmongery product like a door-hinge has been used even centuries before to guard heavy doors and is used even today in modern architecture. Each metal work in any building is called ironmongery.

Ironmongery is a term used to describe products that are made from iron, or products with fittings made of iron, for use in construction. Other words used for ironmongery are architectural metal work or architectural ironmongery. A variety of building structures such as homes, hotels, etc. use them during different phases of construction. However, it is mostly used in handles, banisters and railings.

A house or a building is built in various stages. The architects are consulted to make purchases for different areas in a building or a house. A building formation starts from laying the foundation of the building followed by erecting the walls and making the roof. The art of ironmongery takes place after the completion of initial building work.

Architectural ironmongery can be roughly divided into three types; Pre-Pack Hardware, Iron Window Hardware and Iron Door Hardware. These three categories include: latches, door bolts, bow handle bolts, Breton bolts, tower bolts and door bolts, Suffolk latches, swivel locking bars, turn buttons, wire hasps and staples, tee hinges, etc.

After a building is erected, the purchase of ironmongery products takes place. The installation of the ironmongery products takes place post the completion of the structure of the building. The ironmongery products includes door handles and knobs, hinges, cabinet fittings, and door locks, which are collectively or individually used in banisters, railings, doors and windows.

All ironmongery products are fundamentally reliable and durable, yet care needs to be taken while choosing the supplier. The help from ironmongers can be taken from online and local ironmongery stores. Many different ironmongery products are available, both in modern and traditional styles. It blends in well with every look, be it antique, ultra modern or contemporary. The elegant, classy or modern look of the building determines the type of the ironmongery used. Try and opt for the one that appropriately goes with your desired look and impression.

Ironmongery works provide expediency to life. The importance of ironmongery can be gauged from the fact that the metal work of any building is usually the first thing that catches your eye and makes a lasting impression. They are also important for security and safety purposes of any building. In addition they add to the overall value and the look of the building.

So, incorporating ironmongery in any building has become the need of the day. It may be slightly expensive but it is compensated by the fact that it is long lasting. Invest in ironmongery wisely because it is bound to stay with you for a while with its intrinsic long lasting characteristics.

Importance of a Digital Media Agency for Global Businesses

There are many businesses around the world, which are considering the importance of digital marketing domain as a vital way to promote their trades online and find potential customers around the world. Nowadays, many small to large level enterprises are moving online and adopting the benefits of digital media marketing. For this purpose, they are availing services of top-notch digital media agencies in the market. It helps them advertise their businesses over the web and increase clientele across the globe. Here, a digital agency plays can play a significant role to promote the client's business and take it to the next level of success easily.

Introduction to a Digital Media Agency

Digital media agency is a right step for global businesses, where they get the complete solution for the online branding of their trades. Also, a digital marketing agency helps businesses plan their online marketing campaigns and promote them successfully over the web. A modern digital agency is more effective for online advertisement of business rather traditional digital options like television and print media. Nowadays, every business needs the back of online digital agencies to give a quick growth of the trade over the web. Here, the digital firm can help businesses by fulfilling their digital marketing requirements like website development, designing, SEO activities, PPC, and much more. For managing all the tasks, digital agencies outsource the work to the experts in the market and manage the client's project smartly. Thus, a digital marketing firm takes the challenge seriously and delivers the optimum result for the businesses under the stipulated time frame.

Types of Digital Agencies

In the competitive digital media industry, you can find different types of digital agencies which can serve you the best digital services for online branding of your business.

Integrated Digital Marketing

It is the agency which keeps track of online branding results of the client's business. For this, they make the right use of client's data, analytics, and other online marketing platforms. Also, the agency plans right strategies to improve the client's website traffic online and track the clicks on it via different sources like mobile, email, and other organic searches of search engines.

Digital Campaign

This agency follows digital advertisement strategies for marketing of client's business and its products or services. Here, the agency makes the digital campaign so attractive that inspires the viewers to take an interest in it.

Digital Solutions

The modern concept of a digital media agency model is being adopted by businesses of all levels these days. This agency offers the avenues to provide a digital impression to the business model and plan an effective marketing campaign to promote it over the web through digital means.

Tips to find the best digital agency in the market:

  • Do verification of its market value and years of experience in the industry.
  • Explore the type of digital services provided by the agency for successful advertisement of client's business.
  • Check for reviews and feedback of the agency's clients.
  • Is there any team of digital media experts'?
  • Check for the qualification and digital media experience of the agency's personnel.

Thus, above are few necessary tips, which you should follow wisely before availing services of any digital media agency in the market.

10 Costly Sound Proofing Mistakes and How to Avoid Them

Mistake 1: Hiring an Expensive Acoustical Consultant

Most people should be able to isolate and solve noise problems themselves without ever retaining an acoustical consultant.

If you are considering a consultant, unless you have a big budget, it's important to do a little homework and learn something about your noise problems and how they might be solved.

A consultant will approach any problem you have in a very scientific and systematic fashion. There is nothing wrong this except that it is time consuming and consultants bill by the hour. Also acoustical consultants are not cheap. So rather than having a highly paid professional sniffing around trying to determine the source of your problem, roll up your sleeves and do some detective work yourself. You can crawl around in a basement or ceiling or meet with your neighbors in an attempt to determine sources of noise pollution without spending a cent. A consultant will charge a lot of money to do these things for you.

If you do decide to bring in a consultant at some stage it will be far more cost effective if you have determined 1) the source of the noise pollution, 2) some of your options for dealing with the noise and 3) the extent to which the various noises bother you. The consultant will not know which noise causes you the most stress. You've got to give this careful consideration. The interesting thing about soundproofing is that because noises mask each other, removing one noise often makes another appear louder and more annoying. As you make your home more soundproof it will be quieter but ironically this will mean that you can hear other noises. You need to think carefully about these issues and draw up a noise priority list based. This list should illustrate which noise pollution impacts the most on your quality of life. Always put sleep interference at the top of your list. Noises which interfere with a good night's sleep can be the most troublesome and stressful and can impact directly on your health.

Mistake 2: Trying to Get Even With Your Noisy Neighbors

A lot of noise pollution is caused by noisy neighbors. It's normal to assume that any neighbor who makes an annoying noise must be inconsiderate. In reality most neighbors are actually reasonable people and they might be quite unaware that they are creating a noise problem. So as a first step try having a friendly conversation with your neighbor. Use language like: I need your help with something which you are probably not even aware of. Your dog seems like a great pet and friend but sometimes he barks during the early hours of the morning and it wakes me up. I can not get back to sleep which means I'm very tired during the rest of the day. I know it's normal for dogs to bark – the solution might be as simple as keeping him inside or in another part of the yard at night. Do you mind if we discuss this some more, perhaps you could come over for a coffee and I'll show you where my bedroom is and why it affects me so much.

It is important to keep the discussion friendly even though you might feel very annoyed with your neighbor. People with barking dogs are usually aware of the problem and secretly hope that no one will complain. This means that they also expect that one day they will have to do something about the issue.

Under no circumstances should you consider retaliating by making your own noise, this will never solve the problem and could result in the police becoming involved.

Mistake 3: Buying "Any" Soundproofing Material

There are many different types of noise pollution. The type of material and the techniques you need to use to solve your problem will require a good understanding of the exact noise source and problem. The simplest noise variables are how high pitched the sound is (eg bird chirping) or how deep it is (eg stereo sub-woofer or boom cars). Other important variables are how loud the noise seems, where it is coming from, the sorts of building material that it is passing through (eg windows, walls and floors) and whether the noise if continuous or intermittent. These are not difficult things to determine, but you do need to do a little homework and preparation and you certainly need to know these things before you buy any soundproofing materials.

You need to be able to describe your noise problem very clearly, know its source and know what type of solution you are seeking. You also need to know what sorts of solutions you can use eg do you lease your apartment and therefore must not make any permanent changes to the structure?

Mistake 4: Listening to "Wives Tales "

Beware that some materials and techniques just do not work despite the endless exposure that they seem to attract. What's more frightening is that using the wrong material or technique could actually make your problem worse, for example some materials will actually appear to make a noise louder or change it to something even more irritating.

Aside from the obvious myths around egg crates and plastic window film which are essentially useless as soundproofing materials, other materials and techniques to be suspicious of include:

· Old carpet

· Cardboard

· Special paints

· Fibreglass batts eg the type used for thermal insulation

· Rubber eg old rubber mattresses and floor mats

· Any type of mattress secured to a floor or wall

· Dry cellulose fibre pumped into walls or floors

· Timber sheets (unless they are uncoupled)

· Corrugated or pyramid shaped foam like the type used in recording studios – this does not stop noise passing through walls, it simply dampens noise which is already in the room.

In short you need a credible, unbiased guide to solving your noise problems. The alternative is trying to sift through the science, logic and truth behind each material and technique and then learning how and where to install the material. Even if you had the time to attempt this self education, it is a very frustrating process and there is no way of knowing whether you really have really reached the right conclusion until after you've completed the job. You could end up spending more time and lots of money on methods and materials which do not properly solve your problem.

Mistake 5: Coping When you are Exhausted & Annoyed

Noise pollution can drive you to despair and can literally impact on the health and happiness of you and your family. As a matter of urgency you should consider finding an immediate "compromise solution" to your problem. The most rational, cheapest and fastest compromise is a set of high tech ear plugs. People often think that I am joking when I say this. I'm not. These days it is possible to buy very comfortable and very effective high tech ear plugs which are designed to reduce significant noise. You can buy one or more pairs and start catching up on your sleep and thinking time. Once you have reclaimed your sanity you will be in a far better state of mind to embark on manageable longer term solutions to your noise pollution problems.

Mistake 6: Replacing "Float" Glass with "Laminated" Glass

Laminated glass does give some additional benefit but not as much as you might think. In addition laminated glass is expensive. You would actually achieve a much better effect if you left the existing sheet of glass in your window and secured a second slightly thicker piece of normal (float) glass to your window frame with an air cavity of an inch or two between the two panes. A four inch (100mm) separation between the sheets of glass and some moisture absorbing powder in the cavity gives excellent results and can be done on a budget. This technique is definitely easier than replacing existing window glass with a new laminated pane.

Mistake 7: Complaining to Local Authorities about the Noise

I hate to say it, but most things involving complaints to Local Authorities are time consuming, costly, demoralising and often get you no closer to solving your problem. Anyone who has ever locked horns with any type of bureaucracy will tell you that even when you have a valid complaint the bureaucracy will take forever to do anything. In the meantime you still have to put up with the noise problem and you get more and more stressed and feel more and more like you have lost control over your private world.

I've heard of people who have been asked by local Council to keep a diary of their noise problem for a whole year! Unfortunately most organisations like local government or even the police do not have the noise measuring equipment or proper understanding of noise and environmental laws to properly enforce them anyway.

So instead, put all of your energy into things that you have control over and look for quick wins which will build your confidence and restore your quality of life. The ear plug advice in Mistake No. 5 is a simple example of a quick and inexpensive win over annoying noise pollution.

Mistake 8: Taking A "Best Guess " on Installation Techniques

Even if you have bought effective soundproofing material, most of the effectiveness of the material will actually come from correct installation.

There are two installation considerations:

1) Correctly securing the soundproofing material.

A common reason why soundproofing material fails is because it is not properly isolated from the surfaces which are transmitting the problem noise. For example many people purchase floating floors in an attempt to reduce noise transmission between levels. This often fails because the floating floor is not adequately isolated from the original floor. Floating floor manufactures usually provide a cheap thin membrane to put down on the existing floor before installing the floating floor. The manufactures usually assure you that you are doing the right thing. Sadly it seems few floating floor retailers know very much about soundproofing. What's more it seems that few retailers of any of the products commonly used in soundproofing systems really have a good understanding of soundproofing science and the hidden traps.

2) Correctly placing the soundproofing material.

Even if the soundproofing material is correctly installed and secured, unless it is installed in the right place it might not solve the noise problem. For example a product called mass loaded vinyl (MLV) is a very effective soundproofing material. If MLV were used to reduce sound transmission between two levels of a dwelling, it would work very well if secured to the ceiling of the lower dwelling ie under the noisy floor but it would have poorer performance if installed on top of the noisy floor.

A great help to domestic soundproofing is reliable do-it-yourself information which is clearly laid out with simply diagrams and unbiased materials reviews.

Mistake 9: Not Following the Right SoundProofing Technique

Again this mistake relates to having reliable unbiased do-it-yourself information which is clearly laid out and which you can carefully follow.

Remember a properly placed piece of soundproofing can fail if you lose your way during the installation process. There is a lot of data to suggest that a small break in any soundproofing "system" can results in profound reduction in its performance.

This is not something you have to worry about if you are patient person and you are prepared to be careful and follow a good set of instructions. Again, more reason enough to ensure that your mind is in the right place, that you are calm and are not rushing desperately and erratically to get rid of the noise pollution. See Mistake 5.

Mistake 10: Thinking Gaps are Bad so Cavities Must be Too.

Many people believe that the secret to solving noise problems is filling or packing spaces.

It's true that the first step in any soundproofing plan is making things airtight but this is very different to filling spaces in walls, floors or windows. The truth is air in an airtight cavity can be an excellent soundproofing "material" in certain circumstances. To make the most of air cavities their size and number need to be carefully considered.

So as with all the points raised above, be careful not to rush into pumping, pouring or packing any cavities until you are very clear what it is you are trying to achieve – but definitely aim to make all walls, doors, windows and floors airtight .

Gang Etiquette

Today I'll just talk a little bit about the basics of gangs and their signs and symbols. Gangs are everywhere in our nation and are a growing problem. Almost every police department has a unit dedicated to this cause.

So what really is a gang? It's a its an organized group of three or more people with common names, signs, colors, symbols and who engage in violent and / or illegal behavior. Many of these members have a past of troubled family life. They've often been abused and have not been taught the value of human life. These individuals find acceptance and support in the gangs they join.

Here are some warning signs you know someone that may be in a gang …

– Change in hair / dress new friends with same hair / dress
– Secretive behavior about friends / activities new interest in graffiti symbols
– No explanation for routine changes change in frequented places
– Suspected drug use by changes in mood new discipline problems
– Increase of possessions such as money, hats and cloths
– Phone threats to family new fear of police new sense of bravery

You can, however, do some prevention work in order to keep it from going that far with your child. Here are a few tips …

– Insist on meeting their friends and parents
– Know where they're going, who with, where to and when they'll be back
– Set rules and enforce them
– Encourage out of school legitimate interests

So what are some of these gangs? We'll start with the Almighty Latin King Nation. They appeared in Chicago in the 1940's to support each other against racism and other social issues of that time. They're still Chicago's largest gang. Original members were Puerto Rican but now it has evolved to all races to join but are mostly made up on Spanish, Latvian, Italian, Portuguese, Mexican and South American.

What separates this group is that they preach Latin pride and some chapters have made a religion called Kingdism. They have meetings to recite their gang pledge and pray to rise to the call of Inca. They also use these meetings to discuss gang retaliation, drugs or breaking gang rules. This gang is more structured and organized than most other gangs. They also celebrate January 6th as "Kings Holy Day" and the first week in March as "Kings Week". In their gang symbol, the five points on the crown stand for love, respect, sacrifice, honor and obedience. This group identifies with the colors yellow or gold. The Chicago Police Department estimates about 25,000 members in Chicago alone.

This gang is based primarily in Los Angeles. They are one of the most widely known gangs due to wide media exposure in the 1980s. This gang is no longer racially specific. They usually align themselves with the People Nation. They're a rival of the Crips and often refuse to use the letter C in their writings. This gang began in 1971 and wear their colors (red) on the right side, such as red shoelaces, red belt or a red bandana in their back right pocket.

This gang originated in Los Angeles in 1969. Crips are established in 199 areas of LA. This gang aligns themselves with the Folk Nation. This gang has also spread throughout the US and are multiracial and extremely violent. They associate themselves with the color and refuse to use the letter B in their writings. They also call each other "cuzz" and call themselves "blood killas". They also wear British Knight (BK) tennis shoes.

MS-13 or Mara Salvatrucha originated in El Salvador but migrated to Southern California. This is one of the largest, most known gangs in the US today. They added the 13 to pay homage to California prison gang, the Mexican Mafia. They quickly became the most violent gang because their originating members had experience in training for guerrilla warfare. They can also be found in Honduras and Guatemala. In 2002, gang members boarded a public bus and executed 28 people, including children. Due to their homeland, they often have access to high tech weapons and firearms and often engage in firearms trafficking. Many of these members cover themselves in tattoos. Members also wear Dodgers baseball caps with tan or Dickies and long sleeve shirts with the top button fastened. They were also deemed the Worlds Most Dangerous Gang by National Geographic.

Gangs in today's society are growing, even though some cells are declining in certain georgraphic areas due to changes in economy and other social matters. Some gangs are worldwide and some are focus in the US. All gangs are violent and involved in illegal activities. If you suspect gang activity in your area, contact 911 or your local police department.

Setting Cap Stones – Installation Techniques

One of the biggest areas of failure in masonry wall construction is the cap stone or lack of one. This article will deal with the proper installation of a cap stone and leave inferior design (lack of one) for another day!

For centuries the cap stone was the proper termination method for sound masonry construction. With the modern technology available today you can be assured a leak proof termination to your new masonry walls with a cap stone system that protects the masonry wall from unwanted water infiltration.

What are cap stones? – Simply, cap stone are cut stones that 'cap' or terminate the top of a masonry wall such as garden walls, parapet walls, firewalls, etc.

After the masonry has reached it final height the collar joint (the joint between the inner and outer masonry walls or wythes) is carefully filled, smoothed and brushed. Then a sheet of copper flashing is cut to the desired length and width of the wall.

Some contractors lie this directly onto the wall and lay their cap stones on top of it. Others may use a bituminous coating to cover the top of the entire wall prior to laying the copper flashing in place. Butt joints in the flashing are covered with a bituminous coating approx. 12 "- 16" from the joint and a top piece of flashing is lapped over the joint. Either way is acceptable but the bituminous coating offers an additional layer of protection.

Why use copper flashing? – Copper is used because it has a strong history of holding up to the elements. In this situation any leaking that occurs through the cap stone or joints will drop to the copper flashing and flow out from under the stone and down the wall face, keeping it from the interior of the wall.

You can also crimp the flashing with drip edges and locking seams for the joints if you so desire. Each increase in details adds increased cost to the project but also increases the durability of the wall.

Setting the stones – Now that the flashing is in place and secure you begin to set the cap stones by placing a full bed of mortar on top of the flashing where you will place your first stone.

Smooth and level the mortar bed as needed and set your stone into place. Then level you stone with a mason's level cut your joints beneath the stone making sure all voids are filled and then continue the same process for each additional stone. As you proceed with each additional stone, leave the head joints (the joints between each individual stone which is 3/8 "- ½") open.

Filling the head joints – Now that the stones are in place it's time to come back and tuck-point (fill in with mortar) all the head joints. Some stone will stain very easily from the cements used in mortar so test your stone. If needed, tape the stone on either side of the joint until you have completely filled (tuck-pointed) and 'tooled' that joint, at which time you remove the tape and brush the joint clean.

Your tuck-pointing mortar will be the same mortar that you used to 'bed' the stones with but will be 'stiffer'. This will allow you to compress the mortar into the joint with a tuck-pointing tool assuring a tight and full joint. When you 'tool it' (finish the joint with a concave joint tool) you will compress the joint even further and as you 'slick it' you draw the cements to the surface of the joint giving you a water proof seal between each stone.

Following these few tips and suggestions you can have cap stones that will provide a lifetime of protection from water entry for your new masonry wall.

Seven Critical Success Drivers – Why New Products Win

The challenge in successful product innovation is to design a playbook, blueprint, or process by which new-product projects can move from the idea stage through to a successful launch and beyond, quickly and effectively. Before charging into designing this playbook, let's first understand the secrets to success – what separates successful innovation projects from the failures, the critical success factors that make the difference between winning and losing.

Some are fairly obvious, but before you dismiss them as "too obvious", recognize that most firms still neglect them. As we probe each success driver, reflect on how you can benefit from each, and how you can translate each into an operational facet of your new-product system or playbook.

1. A unique, superior product is the number one driver of new-product profitability.

Delivering products with unique benefits and real value to users – bold innovations – separates winners from losers more often than any other single factor. Such superior products have five times the success rate, over four times the market share, and four times the profitability of products lacking this ingredient.

The definition of "what is unique and superior" and "what is a benefit" is from the customer's perspective – so it must be based on an in-depth understanding of different customer needs, wants, problems, likes, and dislikes:

  • Determine the customer needs at the outset – build in voice-of-customer (VoC) research early in your projects. Wants are usually fairly obvious, and easy for the customer to talk about. But spotting needs, particularly unmet and unarticulated needs, is more of a challenge, but often yields a breakthrough new product.
  • Do a competitive product analysis. If you can spot the competitors' product weaknesses, then you're halfway to beating them. The goal is product superiority and that means superiority over the current or future competitive offering. Never assume the competitor's current product will be the competitive benchmark by the time you hit the market!
  • Build in multiple test iterations to test and verify your assumptions about your winning-product design. Test the concept with users – and make sure they indicate a favorable response. That is, even before serious development work begins, start testing the product!

2. Building in the voice of the customer into a market-driven, customer-focused new-product process.

But the great majority of companies miss the mark here, with insufficient VoC and no fact-based customer insights (in more than 75 percent of projects, according to one investigation). A thorough understanding of customers 'or users' needs and wants, the competitive situation, and the nature of the market is an essential component of new product success.

Research has shown that top performing companies: work closely with customers and users to identify needs / problems, work with lead or innovative users to generate ideas, determine product definition via market research, interface with users throughout development, and seek market input to help design the Launch Plan.

Strong market focus must prevail throughout the entire new-product project, and should be considered throughout the new-product process:

  • Idea generation: Devote more resources to market -oriented idea-generation activities. The best ideas come from customers!
  • The design of the product: Use market research as an input to the design decisions to help guide the project team before they charge into the design of the new product.
  • Before pushing ahead into development: Be sure to test the product concept with the customer by presentation a representation of the product, and gauging the customer's interest, liking, and purchase intent.
  • Throughout the entire project: Customer inputs should not cease at the completion of the pre-development market studies. Keep bringing the customer into the process to view facets of the product verifying all assumptions about the winning design.

3. Doing the homework and front-end loading the project – due diligence done before product development gets under way.

The best innovators are much more proficient when it comes to completing activities in the "fuzzy front end" of projects – they do their homework:

  • Initial screening – the first decision to get into the project
  • Preliminary market assessment – the first and quick market study
  • Preliminary technical assessment – a technical appraisal of the project
  • Preliminary operations assessment – manufacturing and operations issues
  • Detailed market study, market research, and VoC research
  • Concept testing – testing the concept with the customer or user
  • Value assessment – determining the value or economic worth of the product to the customer
  • Business and financial analysis – just before the decision to "Go to Development" (building the business case).

Best innovators also strike an appropriate balance between market / business-oriented tasks, and conduct more homework prior to the initiation of product design and development. Furthermore, the quality of execution of the pre-development steps is closely tied to the product's financial performance.

"More homework means longer development times" is a frequently voiced complaint, and a valid one. But experience has shown that homework pays for itself in reduced development times as well as improved success rates:

  • Evidence points to a much higher likelihood of product failure if the homework is omitted.
  • Better project definition (the result of solid homework) actually speeds up the development process.
  • More homework up front anticipates changes to product design and encourages them to occur earlier in the process (rather than later when they are more costly)

Cutting out homework drives your success rate way down, and cutting out homework to save time today will cost you wasted time tomorrow. Make it a rule: No significant project should move into the Development stage without the actions described above completed, and done in a quality way. And devote the necessary resources to get the work done; that is, front-end load the project!

4. Getting sharp and early product and project definition means higher success rates and faster to market.

Securing sharp, early, stable, and fact-based product definition before Development begins is one of the strongest drivers of cycle-time reduction and new-product success. Best innovators clearly define the benefits to be delivered to the customer, they clearly identify the target market, the product concept is clearly defined, and the product features, attributes, and specifications are clearly defined.

Build in an integrated product and project definition step or check-point before the door is opened to a full development program. This integrated definition must be fact based: developed with inputs and agreement from the functional areas involved: Marketing, R & D, Engineering, Operations, etc. This definition has six components:

  1. the project scope
  2. target market definition
  3. product concept
  4. benefits to be delivered (the value proposition)
  5. positioning strategy
  6. product features, attributes, performance requirements, and high-level specs

Acknowledging a stable product definition is a challenge – even the best innovators struggle. Markets can be quite fluid and dynamic, so build in the necessary front-end homework, pin down the integrated product innovation as best you can before Development begins, specify in advance which part of the product requirements and specs are "known and fixed" versus which as "fluid, uncertain, and variable", and build steps into your development process to gather data so that the "variable parts" of your product definition can be pinned down as development proceeds.

5. Spiral development – put something in front of the customer early and often – gets the product right.

Spiral development is the way that fast-paced teams handle the dynamic information process with fluid, changing information. Many businesses use too rigid and linear a process for product development. By proceeding in a linear and rigid process, the project team and business set themselves up for failure.

Smart project teams and businesses practice spiral development. Best innovator businesses are 6 times more likely to interface with customers and users throughout the entire Development stage. They build in a series of iterative steps , or "loops, whereby successive versions of the product are shown to the customer to seek feedback and verification.

Use spirals – a series of "build -test-feedback-and-revise" iterations. This approach is based on the fact that customers do not really know what they are looking for until they see it or experience it – so get something in front of the customer in front of the customer or user fast (and keep repeating these tests all the way through to formal product testing).

6. A well-conceived, properly executed launch is central to new-product success.

Not only must your product be superior, but its benefits must be communicated and marketed aggressively. A quality launch is strongly linked to new-product profitability. Best innovators do the necessary market research – understanding buyer / customer behavior – in order to better craft the launch plan. They also conduct a test market or trial sell to validate the marketability of the new product and also test elements of the market launch plan. Best innovators also undertake a solid pre-launch business analysis, and most importantly, they execute the launch more proficiently – by a ratio of 3: 1 when compared to poor innovators.

Do not assume good products sell themselves, and do not treat the launch as an afterthought. A well-integrated and properly targeted launch does not occur by accident, however; it is the result of a fine- tuned marketing plan, properly backed and resourced, and proficiently executed.

Marketing planning- moving from marketing objectives to strategy and marketing programs – is a complex process. But this complex process must be woven into your new-product system.

Four important points regarding new-product launch and the marketing plan:

  1. The development of the market launch plan is an integral part of the new-product process: It is as central to the new = product process as the development of the physical product.
  2. The development of the market launch plan must begin early in the new-product project. It should not be left as an afterthought to be undertaken as the product nears commercialization.
  3. A market launch plan is only as good as the market intelligence upon which it is based. Market studies designed to yield information crucial to marketing planning must be built into the new-product project.
  4. Those who will execute the launch – the sales force, technical support people, other front-line personnel – must be engaged in the development of the market launch plan, and some should therefore be members of the project team. This ensures valuable input and insight into the design of the launch effort, availability of resources when needed, and buy-in by those who must execute the product and its launch (elements so critical to a successful launch).

7. Speed ​​counts! There are many good ways to accelerate development projects, but not at the expense of quality of execution.

Speed ​​to market is an admirable goal, and there are many apparently valid reasons that cycle-time reduction should be a priority:

  • Speed yields competitive advantage: First in will win!
  • Speed yields higher profitability.
  • Speed means fewer surprises.

Speed ​​is important, but not as vital as one might have assumed. Speed is only an interim objective – a means to an end. The ultimate goal, of course, is profitability. But many of the practices naively employed in order to reduce time-to-market ultimately cost the company money. They achieve the interim objective – bringing the product quickly to market – but fail at the ultimate objective: profitability.

Be careful in the overzealous pursuit of speed and cycle-time reduction. There are ways to reduce cycle time, however, that are totally consistent with sound management practice and are also derived from the critical success drivers outlined. Here are five sensible ways to increase the odds of winning but also to reduce time-to-market!

  1. Prioritize and focus: The best way to slow projects down is to dissipate your limited resources and people across too many projects. By concentrating resources on the truly deserving projects, not only will the work be done better, it will be done faster. But focus means tough choices: It means killing other and perhaps worthwhile projects. And that requires good decision-making and the right criteria for making Go / Kill decisions.
  2. Do it right the first time: Build in quality of execution at every stage of the project. The best way to save time is by avoiding having to recycle back and do it a second time. Quality of execution pays off not only in terms of better results but also by reducing delays.
  3. Front-end homework and definition: Doing the upfront homework and getting clear product and project definition, based on facts rather than hearsay and speculation, saves time downstream: That means less recycling back to get the facts or redefine the product requirements, and sharper technical targets to work toward.
  4. Organize around a true cross-functional team with empowerment: Multi-functional teams are essential for timely development and are a topic in the next chapter. Rip apart a badly developed project and you will unfailingly find 75 percent of slippage attributable to: (1) 'siloing', or sending memos up and down vertical organizational 'silos' or 'stovepipes' for decisions; and (2) "sequential problem solving". Sadly, the typical project resembles a relay race, with each function or department carrying the baton for its portion of the race, then handing off to the next runner or department.
  5. Parallel processing: The relay-race, sequential, or series approach to product development is antiquated and inappropriate for today's fast-paced projects. Given the time pressures of projects, coupled with the need for a complete and quality process, a more appropriate model is a rugby game or parallel processing. With parallel processing, activities are undertaken concurrently (rather than sequentially); thus, more activities are undertaken in an elapsed period of time. The new-product process must be multidisciplinary with each part of the team (Marketing, R & D, Operations, Engineering, Sales) working together and undertaking its parallel or concurrent activity. Note that the play is a lot more complex using a parallel rugby scheme, hence the need for a disciplined playbook.

Building the Success Drivers into Your Playbook

Many businesses have "operating procedures" or guides on how to do things right. Imagine you are crafting a new-product guidebook or set of operating procedures for how to do a new-product project right – for example, an "idea-to-launch playbook" or a stage-and-gate system to drive new products to market.